Tuesday, May 8, 2018

Parts of a Cigars

Parts of a Cigar

Cap: The cap is the rounded portion where you would cut the cigar to smoke it.

Head: If we hold the cigar with the head downwards, the head is the upper third.

Body: If we hold the cigar with the head downwards, the body is the third in the middle.

Foot: If we hold the cigar with the head downwards, the foot is the lower third.

Barril: The barril itself is a cigar, comprised of three parts: head, body and foot.

Caliber: Refers to the thickness of a cigar or the ring of the cigar.

Tuck: The “open” part of a cigar which you light to smoke.

Wrapper: The wrapper is the outer sheet of a cigar, it is the part we see. The wrapper influences the aesthetics of a cigar so that it has a good finish.

Binder: The binder is the first sheet that surrounds the filler. It is located between the wrapper and the filler.

Filler: The inner and most important part of the cigar. From the mix of leaves that form the filler is what depends the flavor and aroma of the cigar.

Monday, May 7, 2018

Spinning Dancer Illusion

"The Spinning Dancer, also known as the silhouette illusion, is a kinetic, bistable optical illusion resembling a pirouetting female dancer. The illusion, created in 2003 by web designer Nobuyuki Kayahara,involves the apparent direction of motion of the figure. Some observers initially see the figure as spinning clockwise (viewed from above) and some counterclockwise. Additionally, some may see the figure suddenly spin in the opposite direction."

Monday, April 23, 2018

Dissociative Disorders

Dissociative States
In psychology, the term dissociation describes a wide array of experiences from mild detachment from immediate surroundings to more severe detachment from physical and emotional experience. Dissociation occurs on a continuum—at the nonpathological end of the continuum, dissociation describes common events such as daydreaming while driving a vehicle. Further along the continuum are non- pathological altered states of consciousness. More pathological dissociation involves dissociative disorders.

Most individuals have experienced a dissociative state at some point in their lives. Consider if you are talking to a friend and suddenly you realize that you blanked out and missed half the conversation; or consider if you’ve been driving somewhere familiar, and you realize halfway through the drive that you weren’t fully paying attention but were instead on “auto-pilot.” These are both examples of dissociation. Dissociation of this sort is fairly normal from time to time; however, there are five types of dissociative disorders which are considered psychopathological: dissociative identity disorder, disociative amnesia, depersonalization/derealization disorder, other specified dissociative disorder, and unspecified dissociative disorder.

-Dissociative Identity Disorder
Dissociative identity disorder (DID) is a rare mental disorder characterized by at least two distinct and relatively enduring identities or dissociated personality states that recurrently control a person’s behavior; it is accompanied by memory impairment for important information not explained by ordinary forgetfulness. Amnesia in DID is understood to mean amnesia between two or more of the distinct identities; the host alter will experience “losing time” in the present another alter takes the place of the one the host alter. Rarely is the host alter aware of their time loss. Each of the distinct identities or personalities has its own way of perceiving, thinking about, and relating to itself and the environment.

Previously known as multiple personality disorder, DID became popularized in 1974 with the publication of the highly influential book (and later miniseries) Sybil. Describing what Robert Rieber called “the third most famous of multiple personality cases”, it presented a detailed discussion of the problems of treatment of “Sybil”, a pseudonym for Shirley Ardell Mason. Though the book and subsequent films helped popularize the diagnosis and trigger an epidemic of the diagnosis, later analysis of the case argue that Sybil may not have actually had DID.

-Dissociative Amnesia
Amnesia refers to the partial or total forgetting of some experience or event. An individual with dissociative amnesia is unable to recall important personal information, usually following an extremely stressful or traumatic experience such as combat, natural disasters, or being the victim of violence. Some individuals with dissociative amnesia will also experience dissociative fugue (from the word “to flee” in French), whereby they suddenly wander away from their home, experience confusion about their identity, and sometimes even adopt a new identity (CardeƱa & Gleaves, 2006). Most fugue episodes last only a few hours or days, but some can last longer.

-Depersonalization/Derealization Disorder
Depersonalization is defined as feelings of “unreality or detachment from, or unfamiliarity with, one’s whole self or from aspects of the self” (APA, 2013, p. 302). Individuals who experience depersonalization might believe their thoughts and feelings are not their own; they may feel robotic, as though they lack control over their movements and speech; they may experience a distorted sense of time; and, in extreme cases, they may sense an “out-of-body” experience in which they see themselves from the vantage point of another person. Derealization is conceptualized as a sense of “unreality or detachment from, or unfamiliarity with, the world, be it individuals, inanimate objects, or all surroundings” (APA, 2013, p. 303). A person who experiences derealization might feel as though they are in a fog or a dream or that the surrounding world is somehow artificial and unreal. An episode of depersonalization/derealization disorder can be as brief as a few seconds or continue for several years.

-Other Specified Dissociative Disorder and Unspecified Dissociative Disorder
The old category of dissociative disorder not otherwise specified is now split into two according to the DSM-5 (2013): other specified dissociative disorder and unspecified dissociative disorder. These categories are used for forms of pathological dissociation that do not fully meet the criteria of the other dissociative disorders, or if the correct category has not been determined. Other specified dissociative disorder covers a variety of different presentation, including some symptoms similar to DID but not matching the distinct criteria. Unspecified dissociative disorder is often used in an emergency room setting where there is insufficient information to make a diagnosis.

Wednesday, April 18, 2018

Free Will versus the Programmed Brain

Scientific American: Free Will versus the Programmed Brain

"On the other hand, the results fit with what some philosophers had predicted. The Western conception idea of free will seems bound up with our sense of moral responsibility, guilt for misdeeds and pride in accomplishment. We hold ourselves responsible precisely when we think that our actions come from free will. In this light, it’s not surprising that people behave less morally as they become skeptical of free will. Further, the Vohs and Schooler result fits with the idea that people will behave less responsibly if they regard their actions as beyond their control. If I think that there’s no point in trying to be good, then I’m less likely to try."